英语四级读美文【5】

王长喜

Unit 5 Scientific Research科学研究

Text 1 The Scientific Attitude

What is the nature of the scientific attitude, the attitude of the man or woman who studies and applies physics,biology, chemistry, geology, engineering, medicine or any other Science? We all know that science plays an important role in the societies in which we live. Many people believe, however, that our progress depends on two different aspects of science. The first of these is the application of the machines, products and systems of applied knowledge that scientists and technologists develop. Through technology, science helps man to gain increasing control over his environment. The second aspect is the application by all of thinking and acting? First of all, it seems that a successful scientist is full of curiosity — he wants to find out how and why Moreover, he thinks he can improve the existing conditions, whether of pure or applied knowledge, and enjoys trying to solve the problems which this involves. He is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective and applies persistent and logical thought to the observations he makes. He utilizes the facts he observes to the fullest extent. He is skeptical (好怀疑的) — he does not verify them. Furthermore, he is not only critical of the work of others, but also of his own, since he knows that a number of factors tend to disturb neutral and objective investigation. Lastly, he is highly imaginative since he often has to look for relationships in data which are not only complex but also frequently incomplete. Furthermore, he needs imagination if he wants to make hypotheses of how processes work and how events take place. These seem to be some of the ways in which a successful scientist or technologist thinks and acts.

[A] aspects [B] application [C] attitude [D] curiosity [E] incomplete [F] investigation [G] neutral [H] persistent [I] satisfactory [J] sole [K] unconnected [L] utilizes [M] verify

科学态度

科学态度,即那些研究和应用物理、生物、化学、地质、工程、医药或其他任何科学的男人或女人的态度。科学态度的本质是什么?我们都知道科学在生活中起着重要作用。然而许多人认为我们的进步取决于科学的两个不同方面:一方面是对科学家和技术专家所开发的机器、产品和应用学科体系的应用。科学通过技术帮助人类实现了对周围环境越来越多的控制。另一个方面是社会成员对科学家们在他们工作中所使用的特殊的思考方式和行为方式的应用。那么这些特殊的思考方式和行为方式是什么呢?首先,一个成功的科学家似乎充满好奇心——他要搞明白宇宙是如何运转及为何那样运转;其次,他常常把注意力集中在那些还没有得到满意解释的问题上,即使可用的数据看似毫无关联,但是他的好奇心也会驱使他寻找潜在的关联。再次,他认为能够改进纯理论知识或应用知识的现状,并致力于解决其中所涉及的问题。他是一个好的观察者,精确、有耐心而客观,把持续思维和逻辑思维应用于他所做的观察里。他充分利用自己所观察到的事实。他善于质疑——不接受那些并非建立在现有的最充分证据上的说法,因此他拒绝把权威当作真理的惟一基础。科学家总是验证一些说法,仔细做实验并客观地验证它们。此外,他不仅对其他人的工作很挑剔,对自己也一样,因为他知道许多因素往往会干扰这种中立、客观的研究。最后,他非常具有想象力,因为他常常必须在复杂而且经常是不完整的数据中寻找相关性。此外,如果他对程序如何运行、事件如何发生做出的假设也需要想象力。所有这些似乎就是一个成功的科学家或技术专家思考和行为的一些方式。

难 句 解 析 in their work.

【分析】复合句。of society 修饰 all members,of the special methods of thought and action 修饰 application,that 引导定语 从句修饰 thought and action。

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