高中主谓一致讲解及练习

主谓一致

主谓一致指人称和数方面的一致关系。主谓一致可分为:语法一致, 内容一致, 就近一致。

一、语法一致原则:即主语为单数,谓语用单数,主语为复数,谓语也用复数。以下为注意事项:

1. 单数主语即使后面带有with, along with, together with, like, but, except, besides, as well as, as much as, accompanied by, no less than, rather than, including, in addition to 引导的短语, 谓语动词仍用单数。

如:Air as well as water is matter. 空气和水都是物质。

No one except two servants was late for the dinner. 除了两个仆人外, 没有一个人迟来用餐。

2. 用and连接的并列主语,如果主语是同一个人,同一事,同一概念, 谓语动词用单数, 否则用复数. 如: The poet and writer has come. 那位诗人兼作家来了.(一个人)

A hammer and a saw are useful tools. 锤子和锯都是有用的工具. (两样物)

用and连接的成对名词习惯上被看成是一个整体, 如:bread and butter(黄油抹面包), knife and fork(刀叉)等作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。

3. 不定式(短语), 动名词(短语), 或从句作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。如:

Serving the people is my great happiness. 为人民服务是我最大的幸福.

When we’ll go out for an outing has been decided. 我们什么时候出去郊游已决定了。

what从句作主语时的主谓一致what引导的从句作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。但如果其后是系表结构,表语为复数名词,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

What she said is correct.她说的是正确的。

What he gave me are five English books.他给我的是5本英语书。

What he needs is money.他需要的是钱。

若用and连接两个动名词、不定式短语或主语从句,表示两个不同的概念,则谓语动词用复数形式。若表示同一概念,则谓语动词用单数形式。如:

Early to rise and early to bed is a good habit.早起早睡是个好习惯。

When and where the building will be built hasn’t been decided.

何时何地建大楼还未定下来。

Making mistakes and learning to correct them are a part of life.

犯错误和学会改正错误是生活的一部分。

What you eat and how much you exercise are important factors in a weight loss program.你所吃的与你锻炼的量对你的减肥计划都是重要的因素。

4. 连接的并列主语被each, every, no 或 many a 修饰时, 谓语动词用单数.

Every boy and every girl likes to go swimming. 每个男孩和每个女孩都喜欢去游泳.

No teacher and no student was absent from the meeting. 没有老师也没有学生开会缺席.

Each man and (each) woman is asked to help. 每个男人和每个女人都被请去帮忙。

5. each of + 复数代词, 谓语动词用单数. 复数代词+each, 谓语动词用单数.如:

Each of us has something to say. 我们每个人都有话要说。

We each have something to say.

6. 若主语中有more than one 或many a/an , 尽管从意义上看是复数, 但它的谓语动词仍用单数。 但more+复数名词+than one做主语时, 谓语动词仍用复数. 如:

Many a boy likes playing basketball. 许多男生都喜欢打篮球.

More than one student was late. 不只一个学生迟到

More persons than one come to help us. 不止一个人来帮助我们。

7. none 做主语时,谓语动词可用单数, 也可用复数; 但在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数,因而谓语动词要用单数. 但是当either/neither of...构成的短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式(在口语中也可视为复数) 如:None of us are (is) perfect. 人无完人。

None of the money was paid to me.

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