农业景观害虫控制生境管理及植物配置方法

中国生态农业学报 2015年1月 第23卷 第1期

Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, Jan. 2015, 23(1): 9 19

DOI: 10.13930/http://www.wendangwang.comki.cjea.140898

农业景观害虫控制生境管理及植物配置方法*

戴漂漂1 张旭珠1 肖晨子1 张 鑫1 宇振荣1,2 刘云慧1,2**

(1. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院 北京 100193;

2. 北京市生物多样性与有机农业重点实验室 中国农业大学 北京 100193)

摘 要 集约化农业生产过程中, 化学农药所带来的大量环境问题日益引起关注。为减少农药的投入及其所产生的环境负效应, 生物防治害虫的方法在国内外得到了更多的关注与发展。生境管理是一种有利于天敌群落发展, 而不利于害虫种群增长的保护性生物防治方法, 其实质是通过为自然天敌提供诸如花蜜、替代猎物或寄主、躲避不利干扰的庇护所等资源, 将农业景观中天敌的害虫控制服务和功能最大化, 或者通过构建不适宜害虫取食和繁殖的环境条件起到抑制或阻碍害虫发展的作用。本文在参阅国内外文献的基础上, 阐述了生境管理控制害虫的机理, 并总结国外生物防治的实践经验以及近些年国内外的相关研究, 概括提出田间尺度上害虫生物防治的非作物生境及作物生境的建设和植物配置方法, 为通过生境管理提升农业景观中害虫生物防治生态系统服务提供参考。

关键词 农业景观 生境管理 植物选择 种植方式 生物害虫控制

中图分类号: Q14; Q16 文献标识码: A 文章编号: 1671-3990(2015)01-0009-11

Habitat management and plant configuration for biological pest

control in agricultural landscapes

DAI Piaopiao1, ZHANG Xuzhu1, XIAO Chenzi1, ZHANG Xin1, YU Zhenrong1,2, LIU Yunhui1,2

(1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China; 2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming/China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China)

Abstract The negative environmental effect of massive applications of chemical pesticides in intensive agricultural production practices has been a significant global concern. Therefore the rapid development of biological pest control in recent years is directed towards alleviating the negative impacts of intensified modern agricultural practices on the environment. Habitat management is an important conservation biological control approach that creates habitat conditions favorable to natural enemies but unfavorable to agricultural pests. Essentially, habitat management aims to maximize the function of biological control by providing natural enemies with resources (such as additional foods like nectar, alternative preys/hosts, and shelter from adverse conditions), or to suppress pests by making their habitats unfavorable. The appropriate selection and sound configuration of plants in agricultural landscapes are critical to successful habitat management. In this manuscript, we reviewed the mechanisms of habitat management for pest control. It was concluded that elaborate establishment of non-crop habitats and design of cropping systems were important habitat management approaches for improving biological control. We further proposed potential plant configuration models for biological control of pests in agricultural landscapes in China.

Keywords Agricultural landscape; Habitat management; Plant selection; Planting pattern; Biological pest control (Received Aug. 4, 2014; accepted Nov. 12, 2014)

现代集约化农业生产过程中, 化学农药的使用在杀死害虫的同时, 也危害到天敌昆虫等其他非靶

标生物以及人类的健康。且随着农药剂量的增加, 害虫抗药性增强、虫害大规模的爆发、新药品的继

* 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助(2014JD067)、环保公益性行业科研专项项目(2013467036)和国家自然科学基金项目(41271198)资助 ** 通讯作者: 刘云慧, 主要研究方向为景观生态与生物多样性保护和利用, 景观格局与生态服务关系。E-mail: liuyh@http://www.wendangwang.com

戴漂漂, 主要研究方向为景观生态学与生物多样性保护和利用。E-mail: piaopiao0729@http://www.wendangwang.com 收稿日期: 2014-08-04 接受日期: 2014-11-12

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