就近原则专题讲解及练习

就近原则

就近原则也称“邻近原则”,即:谓语与靠近的名词、代词在“人称、数”上一致。 这些词组有there be ……句型, Neither……nor……, Either……or……, or , Not……but…… , Not only……but also……,

1.There be 句型

There is a book and some pencils on the desk.

=There are some pencils and a book on the desk.

类似的还有here 和 This. Here is a man and woman

2.neither...nor...

Neither you nor he is right. = Neither he nor you are right.

Neither you nor I am wrong. = Neither I nor you are wrong.

3.either...or...

Either they or Jim is going to Shanghai next Saturday.

= Either Jim or they are going to shanghai next Saturday.

4.not only...but also...

Not only Ann but also her parents stay at home every Sunday.

= Not only Ann's parents but also she stays at home every Sunday.

Not only the students but also the teacher wishes for a holiday.

Not only they but also I am keen on sports.

主谓一致现象【找真正的主语(看是谓语动词前面的还是后面的)】

有一类连接词,其后的谓语动词要与连接词前一部分的主语保持一致。此类连接词有with, along with, together with, as well as, besides, like, without, except (but), including【就远原则:离连接词远点的那个主语来决定谓语动词】等。例如:

Tracy, like many girls, loves dancing. 特蕾西像很多女孩一样,喜欢跳舞。

All the students, including Tom, are leaving. 所有的学生,包括汤姆都走了。 No one except (but) me knows about this news. 除了我没有人知道这个消息。 a. Each student _____ has_____ a dictionary. (做主语)

b. The students each _____have_____ a dictionary. (副词做同位语,而非主语)

A. have,have B. have,has C. has,have D. has,has

此题应选。a句的谓语用单数,这很显然。b句的谓语要用复数,这点考生很容易出错。其实a,b两句的意思是一样的(=每个学生都有一本字典),但是注意:b句真正的主语是the students,其后的each是主语的同位语,由于谓语是与主语保持一致(而不是与其同位语保持一致),所以此句要选 have。

请看以下例句:

We each have a computer. They each have read the book..

The young people each carry a big bag. My brother and I each have a car.

顺便说一句,若用each of...作主语,其谓语通常是用单数

Each of the boys was deeply frightened.

Each of these books was interesting.

Each of the students has his [have their] own books. 每个学生都有自己的书。

练习题:

1. Not only he but also I A. is B. are C. am D. be

2. One or perhaps more pages _____ missing.

A. is B. are C. has been D. have been

3. An expert, together with some assistants, ____ to help in this work.

A. was sent B. were sent C. is sending D. are sending

4. The police ____ the black in winter.

A. wears B. wear C. put on D. puts on

5. The number of students that you have met ____ the life of the team.

A. are B. is C. were D. be

6. The worker and writer _____ from Wuhan

A. are B. is C. were D. be

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