语言学

电子版考试重点顺序

一、语言学术语,译成中文

1.Syntax句法学:is the study of the rules governing the ways different constituents are

combimed to form sentences in a language, or the study of the interrelationships between elements in sentence structures.

2. Syntagmatic relations组合关系

3. paradigmatic relations聚合关系

4. there are totally six possible types of language, they are: SVO, VSO, SOV, OVS, OSV, VOS. English belongs to SVO type, though this does not mean that SVO is the only possible word order.

5. positional relations位置关系relations of substituability替代关系relations of co-occurrence同现关系

6. relations of co-occurrence partly belong to syntagmatic relations, partly to paradigmatic relations.

7. Immediate constituent analysis (IC analysis)直接成分分析法

8. subordinate constructions.从属关系coordinate constructions.并列关系

9. synonymy同义关系

The so-called synonymous are all context dependent.

They all differ in:

style: Little T om buy/purchase a toy bear.

Connotations: I’m thrifty, T om are economical, and he is stingy.

Dialectal difference: Autumn/fall

Collective difference: look/watch

Emotive difference: partnere

10. Antonymy

Antonymy is the name for oppositeness relation. There are three subtypes: gradable, complementary and converse antonymy.

1.Gradable antonymy

Gradable antonymy is the commonest type of antonymy. They are mainly adjectives, e.g.

good / bad, long / short, big / small, etc.

2. Complementary antonymy

The members of a pair in complementary antonymy are complementary to each other. That is, they divide up the whole of a semantic filed completely. Not only the assertion of one means the denial of the other, the denial of one also means the assertion of the other, e.g. alive / dead, hit / miss, male / female, boy / girl, etc.

3. Converse antonymy

Converse antonyms are also called relational opposites. This is a special type of antonymy in that the members of a pair do not constitute a positive-negative opposition. They show the reversal of a relationship between two entities, e.g. buy / sell, parent / child, above / below, etc.

11.hyponymy上下意关系superordinate上坐标词hyponyms下坐标词

12. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

What the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests is like this: our language helps mould our way of thinking and, consequently, different languages may probably express our unique ways of understanding the world. Following this argument, two important points could be captured in the

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