语言学

Chapter One

1. Chomsky defines “competence” as the ideal user’s of the rules of his language.

2. Langue refers to the linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech

community while the parole is the concrete use of the conventions and application of the rules.

3. language consists of two levels: a lower level of meaningless individual sounds and a higher level

of meaningful units.

4. Language is a system of

5. The discipline that studies the rules governing the formation of words into permissible

sentences in languages is called 6. Human capacity for language has a basis, but the details of language have to be taught

and learned.

7. refers to the realization of langue in actual use.

8. Findings in linguistic studies can often be applied to the settlement of some practical problems.

The study of such applications is generally known as linguistics.

9. Language is in that it makes possible the construction and interpretation of new

signals by its users. In other words, they can produce and understand an infinitely large number of

sentences which they have never heard before.

10. Linguistics is generally defined as the

11. Language, broadly speaking, is a means ofcommunication.

12. In any language words can be used in new ways to mean new things and can be combined

into innumerable sentences based on limited rules. This feature is usually termed 13. Language has many functions. We can use language to talk about itself. This function is 14. Theory that primitive man made involuntary vocal noises while performing heavy work has

been called the theory.

15. The theory that language arose from instinctive emotional cries, expressive of pain or joy

has been called the

16. Linguistics is the scientific study of

17. Modern linguistics is in the sense that the linguist tries to discover what

language is rather than lay down some rules for people to observe.

18. One general principle of linguistic analysisis the primacy of

19. The description of a language as it changes through time is a study.

20. Saussure put forward two important concepts. linguistic

system shared by all members of a speech community.

21. Linguistic potential is similar to Saussure's langue and Chomsky's 22. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human _____.

A. contact B .communication C. relation D. community

23. Language is ___. A. instinctive B. non-instinctive C. static D. genetically transmitted

24. A linguist regards the changes in language and languages use as _____.

A. unnatural B. something to be feare C. natural D. abnormal

25. Which of the following words is entirely arbitrary?A. tree B. crash C. typewriter D. bang

26. The function of the sentence "Water boils at 100 degrees Centigrade" is _____.

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