地铁站疏散Modeling the pedestrian’s movement and simulating evacuation

改进的社会力模型,地铁站人群疏散

地铁站疏散Modeling the pedestrian’s movement and simulating evacuation

Modelingthepedestrian’smovementandsimulatingevacuationdynamicson

地铁站疏散Modeling the pedestrian’s movement and simulating evacuation

stairs

YunchaoQu,ZiyouGao ,YaoXiao,XingangLi

SchoolofTraf candTransportation,BeijingJiaotongUniversity,Beijing100044,China

articleinfoabstract

Thispaperpresentsanenhancedsocialforcemodeltodescribethepedestrian’http://www.wendangwang.comparedwithoriginalmodelsthatdescribedthepedestrian’splanarmotion,ourmodelintroducessomemechanismsofthestaircasemovement,suchasthein uenceofstaircasegeometry,therestrictionofthestepsizeandtheoptimalvelocityselection.Thebodyshapeofeachpedestrianisregardedasasetofthreecirclestopreciselyquantifythemovement.Inaddition,therotationdynamicsareincludedintothemodeltodescribethecongestioneffect.Theimprovedmodelcanobtainindividualvelocityunderdifferentstaircasegeometriesandthe owcharacteristicsoftheevacuationdynamics.SomeempiricaldataandaseriesofobservationscapturedintwosubwaystationsinBeijingareappliedtostudythecharacteristicsandfurthervalidatethemodel.Theresultsshowthatourmodelperformswellconsistentwiththeobserveddata.Atlast,simulationsareimplementedto ndthesolutionsofestimatingtheevacuationtimeandevaluatingthecapacityofstair.

Ó2014ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.

Articlehistory:

Received23December2013

Receivedinrevisedform15May2014Accepted22May2014

Availableonline26June2014Keywords:

Pedestrian ow

StaircasemovementDynamiccharacteristicsSocialforcemodel

1.Introduction

Stairsarewidelyusedinallkindsofbuildings,especiallyinlargescalepublicplaces,i.e.,subwaystations,shoppingmallsandof cebuildings.Walkingonstairsisverycommonandimportantinourdailylives,andscienti cdesignandeffectiveutilizationofstairsareurgentlyneededfordesignersandmanagers(Peacocketal.,2009).Inemergency,suchaspowerfailure, re,earthquakeorotherhazards,theelevatorsmaybeoutofcommission,andthestairsbecometheprimaryescaperoutes.Iftherearetoomanypeo-plecrowdedonstairs,theywillpackclosertogetherorevenleadtosomedangeroussituations(ShieldsandBoyce,2009).Knowingthe owcharacteristicsandpredictingtheegresstimearethekeypointstograsptheevacuationdynamicsandmakeemergencyresponseplansonstairs(Graatetal.,1999;OvenandCakici,2009).Thecharacteristicsofpedestrianstaircasemovementaredeter-minedbyorganizational,constructionalandbehavioralfactors:theorganizationalfactors,i.e.,preparationforemergencies;theconstructionalfactors,i.e.,thestaircasegeometryincludingriserheight,treaddepthandstepwidth(Graatetal.,1999;FujiyamaandTyler,2010);thebehavioralfactors,i.e.,responsesandmove-mentcharacteristicsofpedestrians(Yangetal.,2012;Maetal.,2012).Thestudyofthestaircasemovementisaninterdisciplinary

Correspondingauthor.Tel.:+861051688193.

E-mailaddress:zygao@http://www.wendangwang.com(Z.Gao).

地铁站疏散Modeling the pedestrian’s movement and simulating evacuation

http://www.wendangwang.com/10.1016/j.ssci.2014.05.016

0925-7535/Ó2014ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.

eldwithdifferentfocuses,suchasbiomechanics,physics,physiol-ogy,phycology,computerscience,safetyscience(i.e.,HankinandWright,1958;Fruin,1971;PredtechenskiiandMilinskii,1978;Templer,1992;Batty,1997;Helbingetal.,2000;HaseandYamazaki,2002;Nelsonetal.,2002;Hoskin,2004;Pauls,2005;Trew,2005;Casburnetal.,2007;Hostikkaetal.,2007;Galeaetal.,2008;Kretzetal.,2008;Seer,2008;XuandSong,2009;FujiyamaandTyler,2010;Galeaetal.,2010;Hoskins,2011;Halseyetal.,2012;Yangetal.,2012;Peacocketal.,2012;Burghardtetal.,2013).Tomakequantitativeanalysesanddetaileddescriptionsofstaircasemovement,manyresearcheshavecarriedoutalotofsur-veys,experimentsandevacuationdrillsonstairs,andhavecollectedlargeamountsofexperimentalandobservationaldataofstaircasemovement(pleaseseeTable1fordetails).Inthesestudies,the owcharacteristicsofstaircasemovementaredescribedinindividuallevelandcollectivelevel.Pedestrian owinlowdensitiesre ectsthecharacteristicsintheindividuallevel,andwalkingspeedisin u-encedbyphysiologicalfeatureandbodyfunction,suchasgender,age,height,weight,heartrate,rateofoxygenconsumptionandrateofenergyexpenditure(Irvineetal.,1990;TehandAziz,2002;Halseyetal.,2012).Itisalsoin uencedbystairwaygeometriesandmovementdirection.Pedestrian owinhighdensitiesre ectsthecharacteristicsinthecollectivelevel.Thecollectivebehaviorsincludepedestrians’self-organizedbehaviorsandoptimalroutechoicebehaviors(i.e.,Helbingetal.,2000,2005;Moussaidetal.,2011).Theresearchesofpedestrian owinthecollectivelevelfocusonthreeaspects,(1)evaluatingevacuationtime,(2)reproducing

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