就业、利息和货币通论 (18)

就业、利息和货币通论,中英文对照,共24章

就业、利息和货币通论

CHAPTER 18

THE GENERAL THEORY OF EMPLOYMENT RE-STATED

第十八章 一般就业理论的重新表述

I

WE have now reached a point where we can gather together the threads of our argument. To begin with, it may be useful to make clear which elements in the economic system we usually take as given, which are the independent variables of our system and which are the dependent variables.

现在,我们已经达到了可以把我们的论证思路加以综合的地步。首先,弄清楚以下几个问题是有用的,即:在经济体系中,我们通常把哪些因素视为既定的;哪些是经济体系中的自变量;哪些是因变量。

We take as given the existing skill and quantity of available labour, the existing quality and quantity of available equipment, the existing technique, the degree of competition, the tastes and habits of the consumer, the disutility of different intensities of labour and of the activities of supervision and organisation, as well as the social structure including the forces, other than our variables set forth below, which determine the distribution of the national income. This does not mean that we assume these factors to be constant; but merely that, in this place and context, we are not considering or taking into account the effects and consequences of changes in them.

通常我们视为既定的因素是:现有的技能和可用的劳动量,当期可用设备的质量和数量,现有的技术水平,竞争的强弱程度,消费者的偏好和习惯,不同强度劳动的负效用以及监督和组织活动的负效用和社会结构。社会结构包括下面所列举的各个变量之外的决定国民收入分配的各种力量。视为既定的意思并不是说假设这些因素是固定不变的,而只是说在我们所涉及的范围内,不考虑或者不计入它们的变动所造成的影响和结果。

Our independent variables are, in the first instance, the propensity to consume, the schedule of the marginal efficiency of capital and the rate

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