Freshwater pollution biomarker response of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in two fish species

ComparativeBiochemistryandPhysiologyPartC131(2002)271–280

Freshwaterpollutionbiomarker:responseofbrainacetylcholinesteraseactivityintwofishspecies

´a,b,*F.R.delaTorrea,L.Ferraria,b,A.Salibian

a

´CasilladeCorreo221,AppliedEcophysiologyProgram,BasicSciencesDepartment,NationalUniversityofLujan,

´ArgentinaB6700ZBA-Lujan,

b

ScientificResearchCommision(CIC),LaPlata,BuenosAiresProvince,Argentina

Received21December2000;receivedinrevisedform25July2001;accepted30July2001

Abstract

TheeffectofprolongedexposureattwositesalongtheReconquistaRiver(Argentina),ahighlypollutedperi-urbanwaterbody,onbrainacetylcholinesterase(AChE,EC3.1.1.7,acetylcholineacetylhydrolase)oftwoteleostswasexamined.CagedCyprinuscarpioandfield-capturedCnesterodondecemmaculatuswereusedassentinelorganisms.Eserineconcentrationinhibiting50%ofAChEactivity(IC50)andinhibitionkineticparameterswerealsoevaluated.InterspeciesIC50differenceswerefoundtoagreewithobservedkineticparameters(KA,kiandkc),indicatingthatcarpsweremoresensitivetoeserine.DataobtaineddisclosedspatialdifferencesanddemonstratedthehighsensitivityofAChEactivityasanexposurebiomarker.Markedspecies-relateddifferencesweredetected,showingthatenzymedeterminationofC.decemmaculatusismoreeffectiveinhighlypollutedsites.Consideringtheriverwaterphysicochemicalprofile,observedchangesinAChEactivitiescanbepartlyattributedtolong-lastingraisedconcentrationsofdissolvedheavymetals. 2002ElsevierScienceInc.Allrightsreserved.

Keywords:Aquatictoxicityassessment;Biomarker;Brainacetylcholinesterase;Eserine;MonitoringCnesterodondecemmaculatus;Cyprinuscarpio;ReconquistaRiver(Argentina)

1.Introduction

Cholinesterasesarewidelydistributedamonganimals,bothvertebratesandinvertebrates(Boc-´etal.,1997).Anticholinesteraseactivityofquene

someneurotoxicinsecticideshasbeenusedasabioindicatorofenvironmentalexposure.Theinhi-bitionofacetylcholinesterase(AChE,EC3.1.1.7,

ThispaperwasoriginallypresentedatasymposiumdedicatedtothememoryofMarcelFlorkin,heldwithinthe

`ESCPB21stInternationalCongress,Liege,Belgium,24–28

July2000.

´*Correspondingauthor.DepartmentodeCienciasBasicas,

´UniversidadNacionaldeLujan,CasilladeCorreo221,

´B6700ZBA-Lujan,Argentina.Tel.:q54-2323-423171;fax:q

54-2323-425795.

´),E-mailaddress:salibian@mail.unlu.edu.ar(A.Salibian

prodea@mail.unlu.edu.ar(F.R.delaTorre).acetylcholineacetylhydrolase)inparticulariswelldocumentedasaspecificbiomarkertargetforassessingtheexposureofnon-targetaquaticorgan-ismstoorganophosphateandcarbamateinsecti-cides(Weiss,1958);similarresultshavebeenreportedforpyrethroids(ReddyandPhilip,1994;Szegletesetal.,1995).Sincethesecompoundshavearelativelyshorthalf-lifeandarewatersoluble,theiranticholinesteraseeffectisausefultooltoassesstheirenvironmentalimpactonaquat-icbiota,evenwhenthesecompoundscannotbedetectedinsolution(Sturmetal.,1999).

Similarresultshavebeenreportedforpyreth-´roidsCypermethrinandDeltamethrin(Balintet

al.,1995;ReddyandPhilip,1994;Szegletesetal.,1995).Theseinsecticides,contrarytoorganophos-

1532-0456/02/$-seefrontmatter 2002ElsevierScienceInc.Allrightsreserved.PII:S1532-0456 02.00014-5

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