Profile and removal of endocrine disrupting

Profile and removal of endocrine disrupting

Profile and removal of endocrine disrupting

Profile and removal of endocrine disrupting

JournalofEnvironmentalSciences21(2009)900–906

Pro leandremovalofendocrinedisruptingchemicalsbyusinganER/AR

competitiveligandbindingassayandchemicalanalyses

Ze-huaLiu1,MamoruIto1,YoshinoriKanjo1, ,AtsushiYamamoto2

1.DepartmentofUrbanEngineering,GraduateSchoolofEngineering,OsakaCityUniversity,3-3-138Sugimoto,Sumiyoshi-ku,

Osaka558-8585,Japan.E-mail:liuzehua@http://www.wendangwang.com

2.OsakaCityInstituteofPublicHealthandEnvironmentalSciences,8-34Tojo-cho,Tennoji-ku,Osaka543-0026,Japan

Received09July2008;revised07November2008;accepted31December2008

Abstract

Anestrogenreceptor(ER)/androgenreceptor(AR)ligandcompetitivebindingassay(ER/AR-bindingassay)andchemicalanalyseswereusedtoevaluatetheendocrinedisruptingchemicals(EDCs)behavioroftwomunicipalwastewatertreatmentplants(WWTPs)(KandS).Inthein uents,estrone(E1),androsterone(A),androstenedione(AD),BPA(bisphenolA),NP(nonylphenol)anddaidzein(DZ)weredetectedinhighamountswithsubsequent24h-averageconcentrationsof350,1000,29,1300,3900,and5700ng/LinK-WWTPandof310,620,59,1600,2600,and8400ng/LinS-WWTP.Theestrogenic(androgenic)activityas17β-estradiol(E2)equivalents(EEQ)ortestosterone(Te)equivalents(TEQ)wasconsequently620ngE2/L(570ngTe/L)and580ngE2/L(800ngTe/L)forthetwoWWTPs.Theremovale cienciesoftheabovementionedsoletargetchemicalswere51%–100%forK-WWTPand55.6%–100%forS-WWTP.Theremovale cienciesofEEQwereabout73%forbothWWTPs,whiletheremovale cienciesofTEQwere62.1%forK-WWTPand98.4%forS-WWTP.Inaddition,chemical-derivedEEQwereabout1.2%–52.4%ofthosebyER-bindingassayforK-WWTPandthecorrespondingratioswere1.3%–83.3%forS-WWTP,whilechemicalderivedTEQwerelessthan3%ofvaluesmeasuredbytheAR-bindingassayforbothWWTPs.

Keywords:bioassays;ER-binding;AR-binding;17β-estradiolequivalents;testosteroneequivalentsDOI:10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62356-6

Introduction

Researchonendocrinedisruptingchemicals(EDCs)hasbeenrapidlyincreasedinrecentyearsallovertheworldregardingEDCs’possibleadversein uenceonhumanbeingsandwildlife.EDCsincludeagreatrangeofsub-stancessuchasnaturalandsyntheticestrogens/androgens,pesticides,phytoestrogenaswellasindustrialchemicals(Liuetal.,2009).Wastewatertreatmentplants(WWTPs)wereregardedasthemajorsourceforEDCs(Kolpinetal.,2002;Legleretal.,2002;Tanetal.,2007).Recently,theandrogenicactivitiesforenvironmentalsampleshavebeenstudiedbymanyresearchers(Blankvoortetal.,2005;Leuschetal.,2006a;Urbatzkaetal.,2007).

AsEDCsexistinextremelylowconcentrationlevel(μg/Lorng/L)inenvironment,oneofthekeypointsforresearchissensitiveandacutemeasurementofED-Cs.Existingtechnologies,includingchemicalanalyses(LC-MS/MS,GC-MS,HPLC)andbioassaysarewidelyappliedintheresearchofEDCs.ChemicalanalysescanmeasurepreciseconcentrationsofknowntargetEDCsinenvironmentalsamples,whilebioassaysprovidedi-rectinformationoftheestrogenic/androgenicactivitiesof

*Correspondingauthor.E-mail:kanjo@urban.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp

complexmixturesofEDCs.Forlargescalemonitoringresearch,bioassaysaremostappropriateduetotheirlowcostandhighthroughputcapability.Inpractice,theresultsbasedontheyeastestrogenscreen(YES)andtheyeasttwo-hybridassayshavebeenwidelyreported.However,intheseassaysantagonistchemicalsinsamplescanalsocombinewithestrogenreceptors(ER),thenin uencetheinteractionofagonistchemicalswithER,resultinginlowerestrogenicactivitiesthantheirrealvaluesinenvironmentalsamples.Forexample,Salsteetal.(2007)foundthe17β-estradiol(E2)equivalents(EEQ)ofawastewatere uentwasmuchlowerthanthesumofEEQforitschromatographicfractionsmeasuredbyYES.Thesamein uencewasalsofoundbyHolbrooketal.(2002).Consideringthein uenceofantagonistchemicalsinenvironmentalsamples,theER-bindingassaymaybemoreappropriate.Liu(2004)provedthattheestrogenicactivitiesofEDCscalculatedbychemicalanalysiswerealmostthesameasthatmeasuredbytheER-bindingassayevenifthesamplemixturecontainedantagonistchemicals,whileYESresultswerenot.

Inourpastresearch,thechemicallycalculatedresultswerelessthan10%ofthosemeasuredbytheER-bindingassay(KanjoandNakagawa,2005).Theseresultssuggest-edthattherearestilllotsofunknownEDCsexistingin

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