ҽѧרҵӢ﷭ĵԪ2

PPassage two Disorders of bones and jointsǺ͹ؽϰ Disorders of the skeleton often involve surrounding tissues---ligaments, tendons, and muscles, and may be studied together as diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The medical specialty that concentrates on diseases of the skeletal and muscular systems is orthopedics. Physical therapists and occupational therapists must also understand these systems.ĹͨΧ֯-ligaments졢,һоϵͳļҽѧרҵڹͼ⼲ĹǿϵͳƼҺְҵʦҲЩϵͳ Most abnormalities of the bones and joints appear on simple x-rays. Radioactive bone scans, CT, and MRI scans are used as well. Also indicative of disorders are changes in blood levels of calcium and alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme needed for calcification of bone.ͷؽڵ쳣ڼ򵥵xߡԹɨ,CTMRIɨʹáļҲڷ仯ĸƺѪѹˮƽøҪһø,ƻĹͷ Infection. Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of bone caused by pus-forming bacteria that enter through a wound or are carried by the blood. Often the blood-rich ends of the long bones are invaded, and the infection then spreads to other regions, such as the bone marrow and even the joints. The use of antibiotics has greatly reduced the threat of osteomyelitis.Ⱦһ֢Ĺpus-formingϸȥ˿ڻЯѪǺǵ,ҸȾַȻɢ,ؽڡʹÿصв,󽵵˹ס Tuberculosis may spread to bone, especially the long bones of the arms and the legs and the bones of the wrist and ankle. Tuberculosis of the spine is Potts disease. Infected vertebrae are weakened and may collapse, causing pain, deformity, and pressure on the spinal cord. Antibiotics can be used to control tuberculosis as long as the strains are not resistant to these drugs and the host is not weakened by other diseases.ν˴,رdzǹȲ󲿵ĹͽסǼ˵ļȾ׵ǻᱻ,ܻᵹ,ʹκͼѹؿƽ˲ֻҪЩҩ Fractures. A fracture is a break in a bone. The effects of a fracture depend on the location and severity of the break, the amount of associated injury, possible complications, such as infections, and success of healing, which may take months. In a closed or simple fracture, the skin is not broken. If the fracture is accompanied by a wound in the skin, it is described as an open


fracture. Various types of fractures are listed in Table One. Reduction of a fracture refers to realignment of the broken bone. If no surgery i

WordĵWordĵأҽѧרҵӢ﷭ĵԪ2 4ҳǰ1ҳ

ҽѧרҵӢ﷭ĵԪ2ĵ

ĵ

ض